In their July 2015 email, the CDFA PD/GWSS Board posed the question, “Is PD on the Increase in the North Coast?” According to the email, this query reflected a discussion the CDFA PS/GWSS Board had at their June meeting when reviewing a research proposal to “study what, if any, factors may be changing the way PD is appearing or spreading in these areas.”
The possibility that PD may be spreading again serves as a reminder that the risk of a renewed uncontrolled spread of PD is always with us. The Raisin, Table Grape, and Wine Industries would all benefit from more effective control of PD. Stopping the spread of the Glassy Winged Sharpshooter is only part of the puzzle. There are other vectors for PD (Xylella fastidiosa) transmission. One interesting idea is to try to use bacteriophages as a form of biocontrol. Bacteriophages are viruses* that prey on bacteria. A paper on the topic was published via PLOS One recently.
Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xf), is a limiting factor in the cultivation of grapevines in the US. There are presently no effective control methods to prevent or treat PD. The therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of four virulent (lytic) phages was evaluated for control of PD. Xf levels in grapevines were significantly reduced in therapeutically or prophylactically treated grapevines. PD symptoms ceased to progress one week post-therapeutic treatment and symptoms were not observed in prophylactically treated grapevines. Cocktail phage levels increased in grapevines in the presence of the host. No in planta phage-resistant Xf isolates were obtained. Moreover, Xf mutants selected for phage resistance in vitro did not cause PD symptoms. Our results indicate that phages have great potential for biocontrol of PD and other economically important diseases caused by Xylella.
The full article may be found here.
Caveats about research
Any time one is reading academic research, one should remember that even if a particular study seems promising, the road from discovery to practical application can be a long one. In the particular case of PD via phage, long-term studies may still demonstrate that this approach may not be successful in controlling PD. Even if this approach does work it could be years if not decades before such a treatment becomes readily available. All the same, this is one of the more promising lines of PD biocontrol that I've seen so I'll be keeping an eye out to see how this research progresses.
The main web presence for the CDFA PD/GWSS board is located here.
*I have just enough Latin that I instinctually prefer the probably incorrect neologism ‘virii’ so I always have to correct myself to "viruses".
I first heard about Hanna Instruments new Bluetooth-enabled pH probe last October. Hanna Instruments demonstrated the HALO for winemakers at the last Unified Wine and Grape Symposium (link to WBM January 2015 Issue). More recently, I found myself reminded about the HALO while shopping for winery lab equipment during the lead-in for this harvest. With the HALO™ pH probe, any iPad becomes a pH meter. Hanna has placed a Bluetooth transceiver into the probe itself. The end-user has to do is download the free HannaLab App from the Apple App Store (requires iOS 7.1 or later).
Even though the Wragg fire near Lake Berryessa is currently 75% contained, that's just the start of the fire season. We’re pretty likely to have more wildfires near some of our major viticultural areas before all the grapes are harvested. In addition to the current drought, research looking at the long-term fire risk for the Sierra Nevada isn’t looking very promising. Research is published here.
With Kay Bogart’s permission, I’ve archived several of her smoke-taint in wine related links here. In addition, there have been a couple recent papers in the American Journal of Enology and Viticulture that those that have the appropriate access may want to review (ASEV membership required):
Wine Institute, along with three of its member wineries - Chimney Rock Winery, the Miner Family Winery, and Staglin Family Vineyard - filed suit in Cook County, Illinois to fight a flood of predatory “Illinois False Claims Act” lawsuits. The defendants in the lawsuit are the Illinois Department of Revenue and the Illinois Attorney General.
The legal action comes in response to a spate of opportunistic lawsuits – 179 cases filed against wineries and more than 300 cases filed thus far – by Stephen B. Diamond, a private attorney. Those lawsuits claim wineries should have charged tax on shipping fees associated with online purchases delivered to Illinois. The suits take advantage of an Illinois law that allows “citizen whistleblowers” to sue in the name of the state and collect a generous percentage of any funds recovered for the state.
In a memorandum to members, Wine Institute said it explored administrative and legislative options for solutions to stop the actions against wineries.
“When these solutions were not forthcoming, we retained the services of ReedSmith, LLC in Chicago to represent us in the current litigation. Wine Institute appreciates the participation of the plaintiff wineries, as well as support from the Napa Valley Vintners which has provided assistance with expenses incurred in the litigation.”
“While our litigation will not immediately provide a remedy for those wineries already in litigation, our goal in bringing this action is to put a stop to IFCA lawsuits against wineries in the future and to clarify the confusion surrounding when/if a winery should be collecting taxes on shipping fees.”
For background on the "Qui Tam" lawsuits, see:
Illinois Qui Tam Lawsuits—Private Enforcement Of a State Claim: A Bonanza For A Plaintiff’s Lawyer And A Rip-Off Of Retailers
Illinois Attorney Targeting Wineries
and, Qui Tam Troubles Continue in Illinois
The Carneros Wine Alliance celebrated the 30th anniversary of its founding and the Year of the Ram ("carneros" in Spanish) at an intimate food and wine event over the weekend. Attendees enjoyed a broad selection of Carneros wines from 20 wineries paired with locally sourced appetizers from Stag Dining, a food and wine pairing experience from Fine & Rare, live music from the Max Bonick trio, and prizes and art at the stunning di Rosa property in the heart of Carneros. A portion of the proceeds from the celebration benefitted di Rosa, a non-profit contemporary art museum celebrating the artists of Northern California.
Festivities also included art-walking tours of di Rosa’s renowned Bay Area art collection, a hands-on craft table led by Napa artist and curator, Kristina Young, for guests to create their own cork-based wine country art, and a blind wine tasting contest led by Jonathan Cristaldi, Editor-in-Chief and Instructor at The Napa Valley Wine Academy.
For all photos from the event, visit http://bit.ly/1euXJry
All photos were taken by Allison Webber, www.allisonwebber.photography
The first California Wine Symposium in Havana, Cuba, taking place January 31 - February 3, 2016, is being organized in partnership with California Wine Institute, The Napa Valley Vintners, and Sonoma Valley Vintners.
Vintners will learn about doing business in Cuba while sharing their wines with sommeliers, restaurateurs, chefs and hotel managers throughout the island.
The event is being coordinated by Sonoma-based US Cava Exports, founded by Darius Anderson in 2014 to assist U.S. companies in negotiating contracts to sell agricultural and food products to Cuba. Over the last ten months, they've been working with local Cuban distributors, wine experts, and restaurant and resort managers assessing the market potential for California wines.
Relations with Cuba are warming. Amid the President’s recent modifications to the travel and trade embargo, Americans, Canadians and Europeans are visiting in record numbers. Some three million visited Cuba last year and tourism was up 20 percent during the first quarter of 2015.
Although wine is part of the hospitality culture of Cuba, access to wine there has been limited - though that is changing. Demand is increasing along with increased private sector investment and international tourism. California sent its first agricultural trade mission to Cuba in 2008 while the California Wine Institute sent a delegation to Cuba in 2009.
Last July, Anderson’s non-profit Californians Building Bridges, in partnership with Wine Institute, Napa Valley Vintners and Sonoma County Vintners, co-hosted the first delegation of 18 sommeliers from Cuba, who received travel visas to participate in a professional research, cultural exchange, and wine-buying trip. The week-long tour exposed them to wineries and associations throughout Napa and Sonoma.
U.S. food sales to Cuba have been allowed since 2000 under an exception to a trade embargo Washington has maintained since 1962. As an agricultural product, wine qualifies for this exemption.
US Cava Exports recently gained approval from the Department of Commerce to begin negotiating direct sales and shipping of wines from California to Cuba, in an effort to meet growing demand.
Space for the 2016 trip is limited with priority going to vintners who traveled to Cuba in January 2009 with the Wine Institute and those who participated in the Cuban Sommelier Summit in 2014.
Click here for more information on the symposium and costs and here for the schedule.
Steve Burns of O'Donnell Lane LLC, a strategic planning, marketing and communications firm assisting U.S. Cava in organizing the trip, said he expects at least fifty wineries to be represented, if not more.
Burns said there’s been a lot of interest with early sign-ups from such names as Schrader Cellars, Silver Oak, Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars, Schramsberg Vineyards, Silver Oak, and Francis Ford Coppola.
“Everybody else has already been doing business there, you see French wine and Spanish wine,” Burns said. “Everything is changing by the day, but the U.S. embassy is open. Two years ago there was nothing. In the last six months it’s evolved and there are about ten wine importers.”
Depending on how you define them, screw pumps are everywhere in the US wine industry, but they are seldom recognized as such. This is simply because most pumps used to move must are fed by helical-screw “augers” (AKA Archimedes screw) which could be considered a type of screw pump. However, the term “screw” pump is usually reserved for pumps where the helical impeller is fully enclosed inside of a pump cavity. The resulting pump looks rather like a progressing cavity pump on the outside and the term "screw pump" is often used interchangibly for the two different designs.
The impeller of a screw pump is different form that of a progressing cavity pump, however. I’ve seen a lot of screw pumps in use in European wineries, but see them only rarely in US wineries despite their wide availability and generally gentle handling of the wine.
Contrast the screw pump’s operation with our more familiar progressing cavity pump. Not the two universal joints connecting the helical rotor with the pump motor.
For those interested, here's a slightly more detailed explaination of the Archimedes screw.
Centrifugal pumps are very common in larger wineries, but they are really only useful for tank-to-tank wine transfers. They move wine by using a rotating disc-impeller. This design does not rely on the displacement of the fluid within the pump cavity. Instead, the angular momentum of the impeller is imparted to the wine as it moves across the disc from inlet to outlet port. These pumps need a continuous liquid column within inlet the hose in order to work. This means that, for the most part, they are not self-priming. It is generally best if the pump itself can be placed below the level of the tank outlet.