Note that for wineries, traditional cleaning chemicals such as caustic were shown to be not particularly effective against SARS-CoV (the coronavirus responsible for SARS in 2003, Pagat et al. 2007), so detergents are more appropriate. Proprietary blends which may include surfactants (detergents or wetting agents to lift dirt from surfaces) and sequestrants (metal chelating agents) will be useful when using hard water. In addition, acidified sulfur dioxide solutions are not on the list of disinfectants for use against SARS-CoV-2 provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. With regards to sanitising, chlorine-based bleach solutions are typically mentioned as part of sanitation regimes by the World Health Organization (WHO), DOH and CDC. However, chlorine-based sanitisers and bleaches are NOT RECOMMENDED in a winery setting due to their potential to generate chlorophenol and chloroanisole taints. Ethanol solutions (typically 70% v/v in water) are effective against coronaviruses (Kampf et al. 2020, WHO, CDC) and hence such solutions are recommended for winery surfaces.